H-1B Visa

The H-1B visa is a temporary or nonimmigrant U.S. visa for foreign nationals seeking temporary entry into the United States for employment in specialty occupations. Applicants are selected for adjudication via lottery and are subject to a cap on the number of visas that will be approved.

The H-1B allows U.S. companies to employ foreign nationals with theoretical or technical knowledge in a specialty occupation. It has enabled leading U.S. tech companies to recruit the talent needed – especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics – for America to dominate the world in the arena of technical innovation.

Jobs that suit the H-1B visa require a university degree, the equivalent or higher. The equivalent of a bachelor's degree is considered three years of work experience for each year spent at university.

H-1B Visa Validity

The H-1B visa is valid for three years and can be extended one time for an additional three years. In general, the H-1B is valid for a maximum of six years.

However, there's a caveat when transitioning from an H-1B visa to a green card. The individual can perpetually extend their H-1B visa by filing for an EB-1, EB-2, or EB-3 before the end of the fifth year. 

Sections 104(c) and 106(a) of the American Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century Act (AC21), 8 CFR 214.2(h)(13)(iii)(D) and (E).

In this situation, people have to stay with the same company to retain their place in line. If the individual decides to switch companies, they have to begin the entire process over.

H-1B Lottery 

USCIS randomly selects registrants to submit their complete H-1B visa petition using a lottery system.

The annual H-1B visa limit is 85,000. There are 65,000 regular H-1B visas each year and an additional 20,000 visas reserved for applicants with advanced degrees. 

Some exceptions to the H-1B visa cap include people entering the U.S. to work in higher education or affiliated research/non-profit organizations.

Of the 65,000 regular H-1B visas, 6,800 are specifically for citizens of Chile and Singapore under the H1-B1 visa.

H-1B Visa Requirements

H-1B visa applications require a petitioner (the employer) and beneficiary (employee). 

The beneficiary must meet a minimum of one of the following requirements:

  • Have completed a bachelor's degree (or higher) in the same field as their specialty occupation from an accredited university.
  • Hold a foreign degree equivalent to a bachelor's degree or higher in the same field as the specialty occupation.
  • Hold an unrestricted state license registration or certification in the specialty occupation field in the intended state of employment.
  • Have verifiable and recognized education, experience, or training in the specialty equivalent to a bachelor's degree or higher.

H-1B Documents and Application Process

Step 1: Employer/Agent submits Labor Conditions Application to the Department of Labor (DOL) for certification of an LCA. 

Step 2: Employer/Agent submits the completed Form I-129, Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker, to the designated USCIS service center. The DOL-certified LCA must accompany the I-129 petition.

Step 3: Upon I-129 petition approval, the prospective H-1B worker may apply with the U.S. Department of State (DOS) at a U.S. embassy or consulate abroad for an H-1B visa (or admission if a visa is required). 

The prospective H-1B worker must apply to U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) for admission under an H-1B classification regardless of whether a visa is required to enter the U.S.

     Do H-1B visas require a degree? Not always.

H-1B Registration

The initial H-1B Electronic Registration opens at noon Eastern Time (E.T.) on March 9th and runs through noon E.T. on March 25th. USCIS does not accept H-1B registrations before then. The lottery winners are notified by March 31st. 

Each petitioning company will need to create an account at my.uscis.gov. The individual creating this account should be the person that will sign your I-129 and G-28 forms. Selecting the correct account type is critical to success

There are three types of USCIS online accounts:

  1. Applicant, petitioner, or requestor account – Use to prepare and file applications, petitions, or other benefit requests. You cannot prepare or submit H-1B registrations using this type of account.
  2. Attorney or representative account – Select this option for attorneys or accredited representatives submitting H-1B registrations on behalf of a prospective petitioner. (Form-G-28 Notice of Entry of Appearance as Attorney or Accredited Representative) 
  3. Registrant account – A prospective petitioner must create this account to participate in the H-1B registration process, regardless of whether they will be using an attorney or accredited representative to submit the registration.

We register our corporate clients free of charge; only pay the $10 registration fee to USCIS.

USCIS found the most common causes of H-1B lottery ineligibility was:

  • Creating the wrong type of account; and
  • Entering the same beneficiary more than once.

Each sponsor may only submit one registration per beneficiary. If a single sponsor registers the same beneficiary more than once, then USCIS will "remove all registrations submitted for that beneficiary by that prospective petitioner from the selection process." 

  • However, a single sponsor can submit registrations for multiple beneficiaries and;
  • A single beneficiary can have registrations submitted by multiple sponsors

Chosen registrations are eligible to file H-1B cap-subject petitions.

  1. USCIS will conduct the lottery and choose the beneficiaries that will go on to be filed and processed.
  2. Within 90 days, the selected registrants' employers will file the H-1B petitions with USCIS for processing along with filing fees and supporting documents.
  3. If the petition is approved, the H-1B visa will be issued, and the beneficiary's start date will be October 21st, 2021.

H-1B Specialty Occupations

Field may include (but are not limited to) the following. If your area of work is not in one of the fields of work listed below, please contact us and we will be happy to advise.

  • law
  • mathematics
  • medicine / health
  • modeling
  • nursing
  • research
  • sciences
  • social sciences
  • theology

Labor Condition Application (LCA) for H-1B

Another part of the H-1B application process is the Labor Certification Application or LCA. The H-1B requires a Labor Condition Application (LCA) that ensures equal opportunity, pay, and working conditions for foreign workers and to protect the interest of U.S. citizens and residents.

H-1B Visa Fees

Who pays H-1B fees, and how much does it cost? The employer is responsible for paying applicable fees to USCIS. An exception is when opting for Premium Processing; either the petitioner or beneficiary may pay.

An employee is responsible for the costs related to getting their visa at their U.S. embassy or consulate and visa fees for dependents.

  • $10 registration fee
  • Basic filing fee $460 (I-129)
  • USCIS anti-fraud fee $500  
  • ACWIA Education and Training
    Companies with 25 or fewer employees - $750
    Companies with more than 25 employees - $1,500
  • Premium Processing (optional) $2,500
  • Additional Public Law 114-113 fee of $4000

H-1B visa petitioners pay the additional $4,000 fee only if all of the following apply:

  • The company employs 50 or more employees in the U.S.;
  • More than half of U.S.-based employees are in H-1B, L-1A, or L-1B nonimmigrant status;
  • Filed an H-1B petition to:
  • Seek initial H-1B nonimmigrant status for an alien, or
  • Obtain authorization for an H-1B worker to change employers.

The additional fee does NOT apply to:

  • The same petitioner files H-1B extension requests for the same employee,
  • H-1B amended petitions, or
  • Petitions are for other employment-based visa categories (H-1B1, H-2A, H-2B, etc.)

The Most Common H-1B Forms and There Associated Cost

  • Form I-765, Application for Employment Authorization: This form is required for all H-1B visa applicants who wish to work in the United States. The cost of Form I-765 is $110.
  • Form I-134, Affidavit of Support: This form is required to show that the applicant has sufficient financial resources to support themselves and their family while in the United States. The cost of Form I-134 is $185.
  • Form G-1145, E-Notification of Application for a Nonimmigrant Visa: This form is optional, but it can help to speed up the processing of your H-1B visa application. The cost of Form G-1145 is $0.
  • Form I-944, Declaration of Self-Sufficiency: This form is required for all H-1B visa applicants who are not exempt from the requirement. The cost of Form I-944 is $0.
In addition to the application fees, the applicant may also incur other costs, such as travel expenses to the U.S. embassy or consulate, translation fees, and document preparation fees. The total cost of an H-1B visa application can vary depending on the individual circumstances. However, the applicant should expect to pay at least a few hundred dollars in application fees and other costs.


Form G-1145

Form I-944

Form I-765

  • Cost $0
  • No Fees
  • Opt-in Communication 
  • E-Notification of Application
  • Cost $0
  • No Fees
  • Filed by the Applicant
  • Declaration of Self-Sufficiency
  • Cost $410
  • Fees in USD
  • Filed by the Applicant
  • Employment Authorization

H-1B Attorney Tips for Visa Applicants

Immigration attorney Jon Velie gives some tips on your H-1B visa application strategy, including credentialing, prevailing wage, and the H-1B visa lottery.

Click to play

Alternatives to the H-1B Visa

People who may be eligible for the H-1B may also be eligible for:

  • the TN visa (for citizens of Canada or Mexico);
  • the E3 (for citizens of Australia);
  • O1 (extraordinary ability in a wide range of fields);
  • L1 visa (if they have been employed overseas for at least one continuous twelve-month period within the last three years);
  • The E1 (treaty trader) or E2 (treaty investor) visas may also be worth looking into.

H-1B Visa FAQs

“Can I stay in the US on an H1B visa and be self-employed?”

No, you cannot be self-employed under an H-1B visa. You must be employed by a US-based sponsoring company.

“Can my degree be issued by any university?”

Yes, in principle. However, you may need to have your credentials evaluated by an approved organization. We can advise and help with this.

“I do not have a degree. Can I still qualify for an H1B visa?”

Yes. If you have relevant work experience in your specialty field, you may qualify with equivalent experience. You will normally need three years’ work experience per one year of degree study, so typically twelve years’ minimum.

“Is it possible to stay longer than 6 years on an H1B visa?”

No, the visa itself is strictly limited to the initial 3 years plus possible 3-year extension. However you may be able to stay longer if you apply for permanent residency (green card) while holding an H-1B visa.  But, it is important you apply for the green card by the end of year 2 of your extension.

“Is there a minimum length of degree study?”

To qualify for the H1B, you typically need minimum four years of study on a degree course. If you have completed more than one degree, it may be possible to combine the time spent on multiple degree-level courses. You may also use a combination of university study plus progressive work experience.

“Timeline to file an H-1B after LCA is approved?”

The LCA (Labor Condition Application) is a document filed with the Department of Labor that takes between 7 to 10 days to process. After the LCA is certified , filing the H-1B visa is done almost immediately. Often, employees can continue working while the LCA is pending.

This type of work authorization requires that you have all necessary documents related to the job. The documents need to show that the prevailing wage is being met, the position is a specialty occupation, and the assigned work covers the duration of the visa.

H-1B Filing and Selection Periods

Once the H-1B petition is filed, the selection process can take anywhere from four to six months, depending on whether the petitioner is subject to the cap or not.

Cap-subject H-1B visa petitions have to be filed in the first five days of April to compete for the 65,000 available visas. Once USCIS fills the 65,000 cap-subject slots, another 20,000 visa petitions are selected in a lottery designated for the graduates of U.S. universities with master’s degrees or higher.

The selection period often lasts through the middle of summer. We have even seen notice of selection received after the October 1st start date.

“What does “progressive” experience mean?”

The USCIS has not specified exactly what is meant by “progressive” but you can take it to mean that your work must have required continual advancement over time.

“What is credential evaluation?”

This is simply the process of assessing to what extent education or work experience gained outside the United States is equivalent to similar experience in the U.S. Foreign education may be evaluated by evaluators outside the U.S., but work experience gained in other countries must be supported with documentation.

“What would be the consequences if the U.S. ended H1-B visas?”

It would adversely affect our tech, medical, science, higher education and many others. U.S. companies require the best and brightest to compete. We have massive numbers of jobs in the tech and other industries that cannot find enough talented workers in the STEM fields.

Jobs and companies would leave the U.S. for more welcoming nations. International students will also drastically drop in numbers impacting US colleges and universities.

“Are F-2 visa holders allowed to attend a job interview in order to get H-1B sponsors?”

Yes, attending an interview is not considered work and not in violation of the F-2 or other visas that do not permit unauthorized work. If you are offered a position, you may change your status to an H-1B subject to its filing procedures.

“Are there increase in H1B RFEs and/or rejects in the recent past?”

At OnlineVisas we have not witnessed such a major spike in the number of Requests For Evidence (RFE) and denials (USCIS data indicates 400%) in the recent past.

The severity of consequences for even minor clerical mistakes is expected to increase as USCIS officers are no longer required to issue an RFE or Notice of Intent to Deny (NOID) as of today, Sept. 11, 2018, when PM-602-0163 goes into effect.

“Can I port my H-1B to a new employer after an H-1B amendment denial?”

You can port your H-1B if you are still working on the original H-1B. However, if you left the first job went to another position and the previous H-1B has expired, you may have broken the chain. I would need more information. Please feel free to contact us directly to better address your situation.

“Is the LCA filed for the H-1B process tied to a specific employee?”

The Labor Certification Application (LCA) is submitted to the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) to ensure that there are no Americans willing or qualified to take the job and that the employer pays the prevailing wage.

Determining the prevailing wage is one of the most common areas where an application can be held up.

“What are the possibilities for an H-1B visa in the entertainment industry, for someone with the higher education in a totally different background?”

Obtaining an H-1B visa hinges on the ability to demonstrate the applicant’s specialized knowledge that qualifies them for the position.

An O1 visa may be an option if you meet at least three of the following conditions:

  1. Have received national or international awards or prizes of excellence in their field.
  2. Being a member of associations whose membership requires outstanding achievement, judged by nationally or internationally recognized experts in the respective discipline.
  3. Their work has been featured in professional or high-profile trade publications or mainstream media.
  4. The applicant has served in some capacity as a judge of others in the same (or closely related) field. This could either be individual or as part of a judging panel.
  5. Have had articles published in professional or notable trade publications.
  6. Have made original scientific, academic, or business contributions of major significance in their respective field.
  7. Have served in a leading or critical capacity for highly regarded organizations or establishments.
  8. Command a high salary or remuneration for their services.
  9. Other relevant evidence of exceptional expertise that does not fit any of the above criteria.
“What is the process of sponsoring (for the company) and qualifying for (the person) an H-1B visa? What are the hoops that have to be jumped through? How much does it cost?”

In order to protect the interest of US citizens and residents, the H-1B requires a Labor Condition Application (LCA) which is set in place to ensure equal opportunity, pay, and working conditions for foreign workers and US citizens and residents.

One step in this process is the LCA Notice of Posting. Essentially, this is a requirement that the employer formally informed their employees and the public in writing that the LCA is being filed.

The notice of posting can come in two forms – a hard copy notice or an electronic notice. To post a hard copy notice, after the LCA attestation is accepted, the employer must print and sign the LCA. Then, they must post it in two conspicuous places in the work area where the beneficiary would be working.

An electronic notice should be given on or within 30 days before the labor certification is filed. It should be made available for viewing by affected employees for at least 10 days. The employer may make the notice available using any means it normally uses to communicate with workers such as a “home page” or “electronic bulletin board”.

Rules for the notice of posting vary slightly depending on if there is a bargaining representative or not.

According to the Code of Federal Regulation, if there is not a bargaining representative, the notice should include:

  • that H-1B nonimmigrants are sought;
  • the number of such nonimmigrants the employer is seeking;
  • the occupational classification; the wages offered;
  • the period of employment;
  • the location(s) at which the H-1B nonimmigrants will be employed;
  • and that the LCA is available for public inspection at the H-1B employer’s principal place of business in the U.S. or at the worksite.

The notice should also include the statement:

“Complaints alleging misrepresentation of material facts in the labor condition application and/or failure to comply with the terms of the labor condition application may be filed with any office of the Wage and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.”

If there is collective bargaining representative for the occupational classification in which the beneficiary will be employed, the notice should pinpoint:

  • the number of H-1B nonimmigrants the employer is seeking to employ;
  • the occupational classification in which the H-1B nonimmigrants will be employed;
  • the wages offered;
  • the period of employment;
  • and the location(s) at which the H-1B nonimmigrants will be employed.

In addition to posting the labor certification, the employer must develop and maintain documentation to support the statements made in the notice of posting.

The Code of Federal Regulation States that the employer should retain records for one year beyond the period which the H-1B nonimmigrant was employed under the labor condition application or, if no beneficiary was employed, one year after the date the LCA expired. Moreover, the documentation must be made available for public and Department of Labor examination upon request.

“What kinds of RFEs USCIS are imposing on H1B Extensions?”

FYI: Effective Sept. 11, 2018, USCIS officers are no longer required to issue a Request for Evidence (RFE) or a Notice of Intent to Deny (NOID) and may outright deny an application, petition or request for even minor clerical mistakes.

4 major issues with H-1B visas that can trigger an RFE

1. Deference to previously approved visas

The first major hurdle for H-1B visa holders came in the form of Policy Memorandum 602-0151 issued on October 23, 2017. The new memorandum rescinded previous guidance, issued April 23, 2004, that gave deference to prior determinations of eligibility for H-1B visa holders filing for extensions that involved the same parties and underlying facts as the initial petition.

In other words, USCIS introduced a series of policies with more stringent standards to apply to previously approved petitions.

2. Level 1 wage

The second complication to H-1B petitions is wage levels. More H-1B RFEs now question wage level 1. On March 31, 2017, USCIS issued a policy memorandum that put into question the qualification of ‘computer programmer’ as a specialty occupation. Specifically, entry-level positions that require a university degree, but no experience are typically classified under level 1 wage. USCIS has argued that the job duties paying level 1 wages are not complex enough to qualify as specialized but too complex to be considered entry-level because they involve the exercise of judgment and thus require oversight from a wage level 3 supervisor. Quite the predicament.

3. Specialty occupation

This brings us to the problem of singular degrees and specialization. USCIS contends that a specialty occupation requires a theoretical and practical application of a body of specialized knowledge and together with at least a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent. The issue with the singular degree requirement is that often the coursework of a related degree provides the specialized knowledge needed to perform job duties.

For instance, to fill a computer programmer position an applicant does not necessarily require a computer science degree to carry out tasks. Instead, a person with a mathematics or information technology degree can adequately fulfill such job responsibilities. Under the new policy, if an employer determines that an applicant with a mathematics degree is most qualified for a computer programmer position, a technical evaluation must then be submitted with solid documentation demonstrating how the applicant’s coursework is directly connected to the job description, adding time and money to an already complex process.

4. Right to control

Another obstacle to the H-1B visa is the “right to control” in which USCIS scrutinizes the employer-employee relationship by weighing multiple factors such as who directly supervises the H-1B worker and whether supervision is performed on or off-site.

If the work is performed off-site, then the method and frequency of supervision are analyzed. USCIS further evaluates the employer-employee relationship in a myriad of ways, most common are: who pays the H-1B worker, sets their hours, directs their daily tasks, is in charge of hiring and firing, provides benefits and claims the worker for tax purposes. The use of proprietary information and whether the end work product is directly linked to the H-1B employer’s (petitioner’s) business is closely examined.

To combat such intrusive investigation by USCIS, project management software that indicates oversight and services provided by all constituents should be used. Furthermore, submitting an itinerary or any and all documentation demonstrating the employer-employee relationship with specific job duties that is signed by all parties can help increase the chances of success.

“Will it be a good option to switch jobs after 9/11 with H-1B filed under normal processing and waiting for the final approval?”

Obtaining H-1B transfer approval to switch jobs without premium processing, which is suspended until mid-February, will be an extremely SLOW process. Exploring H-1B visa alternatives could be a solution to avoid long wait times.

“Will restricting legal immigration destroy the country economically as H-1B visa holders pay billions of dollars in taxes annually and they get no benefits (no social security, no medicare or other benefits)?”

Restricting H-1B visa issuance has a number of negative impacts on our economy. Statistically every H-1B visa creates almost two jobs for Americans on average. In smaller companies it can create almost 7 jobs per each H-1B. Reducing H-1Bs reduces jobs for Americans at almost double a rate.

Making these high skilled visas tougher to obtain for American companies forces jobs and companies to leave America. It also has caused foreign nation students to lose interest in attending U.S. Universities. Indian students have decreased admissions by 28% while Chinese students havre decreased by 24%. This translates to a loss of approximately $2 Billion in tuition to U.S. universities annually.

Other countries like Canada and India are already enjoying increase migration of American companies and foreign nationals to bolster their economy especially in the tech industry.

The U.S. has led the world in technology by importing the top skill in the world to come to our inviting and innovative environment, visa regulations are chilling this environment. This could cause us to lose our leadership position and adversely impact our economy.

“Can I bring my family with me to the United States?”

Yes, your immediate family (i.e. spouse and any unmarried children under the age of 21) may accompany you to the U.S. under an H4 visa. They will be permitted to study but not work in the United States.

Is USCIS not sending RFEs for H1 petition this year?

Effective Sept. 11, 2018, USCIS officers are no longer required to issue a Request for Evidence (RFE) or a Notice of Intent to Deny (NOID) and may outright deny an application, petition or request for even minor clerical mistakes.

The new policy implementation allowing USCIS officers the ability to deny a visa or green card application, petition or request without issuing a Request for Evidence (RFE) gives adjudicators almost full discretion to make complex judgments without clear standards nor proper oversight to safeguard against unequal treatment.

What this means is that immigration officials who have questions about a case or see a technical issue can merely deny instead of giving applicants or petitioners an opportunity to correct clerical errors or provide U.S. employers and attorneys the right to address concerns.

The intensified restrictions to immigration still allow for the official to issue an RFE, but will they? In some cases yes.

However, past actions signal that denials will rise, even in cases that would ultimately be approved given the opportunity to rectify concerns or submit additional evidence.

USCIS’ updated policy states that an application, petition, or request can now be denied without issuing a Request for Evidence (RFE). What will be the implication of this on H1B Visa holders?


The new policy implementation allowing USCIS officers the ability to deny a visa or green card application, petition or request without issuing a Request for Evidence (RFE) gives adjudicators almost full discretion to make complex judgments without clear standards nor proper oversight to safeguard against unequal treatment.

What this means is that immigration officials who have questions about a case or see a technical issue can merely deny instead of give applicants or petitioners an opportunity to correct clerical errors or provide U.S. employers and attorneys the right to address concerns.

The intensified restrictions to immigration still allow for the official to issue an RFE, but will they? In some cases yes.

However, past actions signal that denials will rise, even in cases that would ultimately be approved given the opportunity to rectify concerns or submit additional evidence.

The implication for an H1-B visa holder seeking an extension is thisdot your i’s and cross your t’s. Make sure you have a seasoned law professional with high approval success in your corner.

The changes could be devastating to American employers and employees who use legal processes to file visa petitions on behalf of the foreign nationals to extend their employment.


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